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All rights reserved. This West African city—long synonymous with the uttermost end of the Earth—was added to the World Heritage List in , many centuries after its apex.

Timbuktu was a center of Islamic scholarship under several African empires, home to a 25,student university and other madrasahs that served as wellsprings for the spread of Islam throughout Africa from the 13th to 16th centuries.

Sacred Muslim texts, in bound editions, were carried great distances to Timbuktu for the use of eminent scholars from Cairo, Baghdad, Persia, and elsewhere who were in residence at the city.

The great teachings of Islam, from astronomy and mathematics to medicine and law, were collected and produced here in several hundred thousand manuscripts.

Many of them remain, though in precarious condition, to form a priceless written record of African history. Now a shadow of its former glory, Timbuktu strikes most travelers as humble and perhaps a bit run down.

These 14th- and 15th-century places of worship were also the homes of Islamic scholars known as the Ambassadors of Peace. Retrieved 24 February Archived from the original on 7 July BBC Worldwide.

Retrieved 20 March International Journal of Political Economy. Armonk, NY: M. Sharpe, Inc. Retrieved 14 September Associated Press.

Retrieved 2 April BBC News. Retrieved 31 March Retrieved 3 April The Washington Post. Archived from the original on 6 April Retrieved 5 April Retrieved 17 October Retrieved 28 January Barth, Heinrich , Travels and discoveries in North and Central Africa: Being a journal of an expedition undertaken under the auspices of H.

Google books: Volume 1 , Volume 2 , Volume 3. Google books: Volume 1 , Volume 2. Dubois, Felix , Timbuctoo the mysterious , White, Diana trans. Fage, J.

Also available from Gallica. Houdas, Octave ed. The anonymous 18th century Tadhkirat al-Nisyan is a biographical dictionary of the pashas of Timbuktu from the Moroccan conquest up to Hunwick, John O.

Volume X 2nd ed. Insoll, Timothy , "Timbuktu the less Mysterious? Also available from Aluka but requires subscription. Leo Africanus Before which is prefixed a generall description of Africa, and a particular treatise of all the lands undescribed.

Translated and collected by John Pory. London: G. Link requires subscription to Aluka. Levtzion, Nehemia; Hopkins, John F. Park, Douglas , "Timbuktu and its prehistoric hinterland" , Antiquity , 84 : —, doi : Saad, Elias N.

Joffre, Joseph; Dimnet, Ernest ed. Kryza, Frank T. A facsimile of Pory's English translation of together with an introduction and notes by the editor.

Reissued by Anchor Books, New York in Morse, Jedidiah ; Morse, Richard C. Staros, Kari A. Categories : History of Mali Timbuktu.

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Wikimedia Commons. Add links. Battle of Kirina Twelve Doors of Mali. Soninke people Koumbi Saleh. Sonni Ali Battle of Tondibi.

French West Africa Mali Federation. Years in Mali History of West Africa. Mali portal. Wikimedia Commons has media related to History of Timbuktu.

Although the Tuareg exacted sizable tributes and plundered periodically, trade and learning continued to flourish in Timbuktu.

By its population increased to about , During the Askia period — Timbuktu was at the height of its commercial and intellectual development.

After it was captured by Morocco in , the city declined. Its scholars were ordered arrested in on suspicion of disaffection; some were killed during a resulting struggle, while others were exiled to Morocco.

Perhaps worse still, the small Moroccan garrisons placed in command of the city offered inadequate protection, and Timbuktu was repeatedly attacked and conquered by the Bambara , Fulani , and Tuareg.

European explorers reached Timbuktu in the early 19th century. In the German geographer Heinrich Barth reached the city during a five-year trek across Africa.

He, too, survived the journey, later publishing a chronicle of his travels. Timbuktu was captured by the French in They partly restored the city from the desolate condition in which they found it, but no connecting railway or hard-surfaced road was built.

In it became part of the newly independent Republic of Mali. Timbuktu is now an administrative centre of Mali. An even greater threat came in when Tuareg rebels, backed by Islamic militants, took control of the northern part of the country.

The Tuaregs claimed the territory, which included Timbuktu, as the independent state of Azawad.

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There is hope that libraries and cultural centers can be established to preserve the precious collection and become a source of tourist revenue.

Some fledgling efforts toward this end are now under way. This characterization had roots in reality and in fact continues to the present in much reduced form.

Salt from the desert had great value and, along with other caravan goods, enriched the city in its heyday.

It was these profitable caravans, in fact, that first brought scholars to congregate at the site. In the 16th century Moroccan invaders began to drive scholars out, and trade routes slowly shifted to the coasts.

French colonization at the close of the 19th century dealt another serious blow to the former glories of Timbuktu. Things in Timbuktu deteriorated to the point that, though recognized as a World Heritage site only a few years before, it was placed on the List of World Heritage in Danger in But with major improvements to the preservation of the three ancient mosques Timbuktu earned its way off that list in Timbuktu struggles to draw tourist revenue and develop tourism in a way that preserves the past—new construction near the mosques has prompted the World Heritage Committee to keep the site under close surveillance.

Perched as it is on the edge of the Sahara, relentless encroachment of the desert sands is also a threat to Timbuktu. In , Timbuktu was once again placed on the List of World Heritage in Danger because of threats related to armed conflict.

In the first half of the 15th century the Tuareg tribes took control of the city for a short period until the expanding Songhai Empire absorbed the city in A Moroccan army defeated the Songhai in , and made Timbuktu, rather than Gao , their capital.

The invaders established a new ruling class, the Arma , who after became virtually independent of Morocco. However, the golden age of the city was over, during which it was a major learning and cultural center of the Mali empire, and it entered a long period of decline.

Different tribes governed until the French took over in , a situation that lasted until it became part of the current Republic of Mali in Presently, Timbuktu is impoverished and suffers from desertification.

In its Golden Age, the town's numerous Islamic scholars and extensive trading network made possible an important book trade: together with the campuses of the Sankore Madrasah , an Islamic university, this established Timbuktu as a scholarly centre in Africa.

Several notable historic writers, such as Shabeni and Leo Africanus , have described Timbuktu. These stories fueled speculation in Europe, where the city's reputation shifted from being extremely rich to being mysterious.

This reputation overshadows the town itself in modern times, to the point where it is best known in Western culture as an expression for a distant or outlandish place.

Although the accumulation of thick layers of sand has thwarted archaeological excavations in the town itself, [2] [3] some of the surrounding landscape is deflating and exposing pottery shards on the surface.

A survey of the area by Susan and Roderick McIntosh in identified several Iron Age sites along the el-Ahmar, an ancient wadi system that passes a few kilometers to the east of the modern town.

An Iron Age tell complex located 9 kilometres 6 miles southeast of the Timbuktu near the Wadi el-Ahmar was excavated between and by archaeologists from Yale University and the Mission Culturelle de Tombouctou.

The results suggest that the site was first occupied during the 5th century BC, thrived throughout the second half of the 1st millennium AD and eventually collapsed sometime during the late 10th or early 11th century AD.

At the time both Timbuktu and Gao formed part of the Mali Empire. A century and a half later, in around , Leo Africanus visited Timbuktu.

He gave a description of the town in his Descrittione dell'Africa which was published in The earliest surviving local documents are the 17th century chronicles, al-Sadi's Tarikh al-Sudan and Ibn al-Mukhtar's Tarikh al-fattash.

These provide information on the town at the time of the Songhay Empire and the invasion by Moroccan forces in The authors do not, in general, acknowledge their sources [11] but the accounts are likely to be based on oral tradition and on earlier written records that have not survived.

Al-Sadi and Ibn al-Mukhtar were members of the scholarly class and their chronicles reflect the interests of this group.

The Tarikh al-fattash ends in around while the Tarikh al-Sudan continues to Information after this date is provided by the Tadhkirat al-Nisyan A Reminder to the Obvious , [14] [15] an anonymous biographical dictionary of the Moroccan rulers of Timbuktu written in around It does not contain the detail provided by the earlier Tarikh al-Sudan.

A short chronicle written by Mawlay al-Qasim gives details of the pashalik in the second half of the 18th century.

However, modern scholars believe that there is insufficient available evidence to pinpoint the exact time of origin and founders of Timbuktu, although it is clear that the city originated from a local trade between Saharan pastoralists and boat trade within the Niger River Delta.

Timbuktu was peacefully annexed by King Musa I when returning from his pilgrimage in to Mecca. The city became part of the Mali Empire and Musa I ordered the construction of a royal palace.

In , Timbuktu appeared in the Catalan Atlas , showing that it was, by then, a commercial centre linked to the North-African cities and had caught Europe's attention.

With the power of the Mali Empire waning in the first half of the 15th century, Timbuktu became relatively autonomous, although Maghsharan Tuareg had a dominating position.

Thirty years later the rising Songhai Empire expanded, absorbing Timbuktu in or Although Sunni Ali Ber was in severe conflict with Timbuktu after its conquest, Askia Mohammad I created a golden age for both the Songhai Empire and Timbuktu through an efficient central and regional administration and allowed sufficient leeway for the city's commercial centers to flourish.

With Gao the capital of the Songhai Empire, Timbuktu enjoyed a relatively autonomous position. Merchants from Ghadames , Awjilah , and numerous other cities of North Africa gathered there to buy gold and slaves in exchange for the Saharan salt of Taghaza and for North African cloth and horses.

Following the Battle of Tondibi , the city was captured on 30 May by an expedition of mercenaries , dubbed the Arma.

The Arma brought the end of an era of relative autonomy. In , Ahmad I al-Mansur cited 'disloyalty' as the reason for arresting, and subsequently killing or exiling, many of Timbuktu's scholars, including Ahmad Baba.

The city's decline continued, with the increasing trans-atlantic trade routes — transporting African slaves, including leaders and scholars of Timbuktu — marginalising Timbuktu's role as a trade and scholarly center.

This changed in , when the Massina Empire took over control of the city until , when they were driven away by the Toucouleur Empire.

Sources conflict on who was in control when the French arrived: Elias N. Saad in suggests the Soninke Wangara , [43] a article in the Journal of the Royal African Society mentions the Tuareg, [45] while Africanist John Hunwick does not determine one ruler, but notes several states competing for power 'in a shadowy way' until Historic descriptions of the city had been around since Leo Africanus 's account in the first half of the 16th century, [47] and they prompted several European individuals and organizations to make great efforts to discover Timbuktu and its fabled riches.

In a group of titled Englishmen formed the African Association with the goal of finding the city and charting the course of the Niger River.

The earliest of their sponsored explorers was a young Scottish adventurer named Mungo Park , who made two trips in search of the Niger River and Timbuktu departing first in and then in It is believed that Park was the first Westerner to have reached the city, but he died in modern-day Nigeria without having the chance to report his findings.

The American sailor Robert Adams claimed to have visited Timbuktu in , while he was enslaved for several years in Northern Africa. After being freed by the British consul in Tangier and going to Europe, he gave an account of his experience, potentially making him the first Westerner for hundreds of years to have reached the city and returned to tell about it.

However, his story quickly became controversial. While some historians have defended Adams' account, [52] more recent scholarship concludes that while Adams was almost certainly in Northern Africa, the discrepancies in his depiction of Timbuktu make it unlikely he ever visited the city.

After the scramble for Africa had been formalized in the Berlin Conference , land between the 14th meridian and Miltou, South-West Chad , became French territory, bounded in the south by a line running from Say, Niger to Baroua.

Although the Timbuktu region was now French in name, the principle of effective occupation required France to actually hold power in those areas assigned, e.

On 15 December , the city, by then long past its prime, was annexed by a small group of French soldiers, led by Lieutenant Gaston Boiteux.

The colony was reorganised and the name changed several times during the French colonial period. This name was used until when it became French Sudan again.

Both men were buried in the European cemetery — possibly the most remote British war graves tended by the Commonwealth War Graves Commission.

They were not the only war captives in Timbuktu: Peter de Neumann was one of 52 men imprisoned in Timbuktu in when their ship, the SS Criton , was intercepted by two Vichy French warships.

Although several men, including de Neumann, escaped, they were all recaptured and stayed a total of ten months in the city, guarded by natives.

Upon his return to England, he became known as "The Man from Timbuctoo". After a period as part of the short-lived Mali Federation , the Republic of Mali was proclaimed on 22 September After 19 November , a new constitution was created in , making Mali a single-party state.

By then, the canal linking the city with the Niger River had already been filled with sand from the encroaching desert.

Severe droughts hit the Sahel region in and , decimating the Tuareg population around Timbuktu who relied on goat herding. The Niger's water level dropped, postponing the arrival of food transport and trading vessels.

The crisis drove many of the inhabitants of Tombouctou Region to Algeria and Libya. Despite its illustrious history, modern-day Timbuktu is an impoverished town, poor even by Third World standards.

Current issues include dealing with both droughts and floods, the latter caused by an insufficient drainage system that fails to transport direct rainwater from the city centre.

One such event damaged World Heritage property, killing two and injuring one in According to Timbuktu's mayor, the announcement caused nearly all of Timbuktu's Christian population to flee the city.

In early June, a group of residents stated they had formed an armed militia to fight against the rebel occupation of the city.

One member, a former army officer, stated that the proclaimer 'Patriots' Resistance Movement for the Liberation of Timbuktu' opposed the secession of northern Mali.

The city has been attacked multiple times on several different occasions, once on 21 March when a suicide bomber detonated his explosives killing a Malian soldier, creating a fierce shoot-out at the international airport, killing ten rebels.

On 31 March, a group of 20 rebels infiltrated into Timbuktu as civilians and attacked the Malian army base in the city killing three Malian soldiers and injuring dozens more.

From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia. History of a city in the Republic of Mali. Chronology of Timbuktu. This box: view talk edit.

Autonomous settlement. Mali Empire. Songhai Empire. Moroccan Pashalik. Arma pashalik. Maasina Empire. French colony. Republic of Mali. Visit by Ibn Battuta.

Visit by Leo Africanus. Tarikh al-Sudan completed.